1.0 Completed Research:
1.1 Integrated Water Resource Management in Lake Manyara Sub-Basin

In October 2003 the results were presented at the 4th Annual WARFSA Symposium in Gaborone, Botswana. The final report was submitted to WARFSA. A paper was prepared and has been accepted for publication by the Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Journal to appear in the November 2004 series. A Kiswahili version of the report was prepared and disseminated to the local stakeholders in Manyara Region. Researchers: Prof. J. Ngana, Prof. R.B.B. Mwalyosi, Prof. P. Yanda and Prof. N.F. Madulu

1.2 Enhancing Agricultural production through Sustainable Irrigation: A case of vinyungu farming sys

The results were fed back to the stakeholders in a workshop in Iringa. A Kiswahili manual on traditional agricultural inputs was prepared and distributed to farmers and agricultural extension staff in Iringa. Apart from a report on the study, a chapter was prepared for publication in a book. Researchers: Dr. A. Majule and Prof. R. Mwalyosi

1.3 Man-Land Interrelationships in Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania

The MALISATA Programme was initiated in 1991 with the support of the Swedish Agency for Research Co-operation (SAREC) to develop an understanding of land degradation in the Kondoa Eroded Area (KEA) in the Kondoa District and other semi arid areas of Tanzania. The programme was meant to provide scientific basis for the operation of the Government supervised Land Conservation Project in Dodoma (HADO). The Programme came to an end in 2000. During its lifetime the Programme produced 11 PhDs, 3 MSc and over 100 publications have been produced. During the reporting period, a three-day Workshop was held in Dodoma to feedback and solicit stakeholder inputs and reflect on the research output of the Programme. Workshop participants included senior representatives from Kondoa District and the Dodoma Regional Secretariat. Subsequently, the research works have been synthesized into a Monograph. A summary of the monograph has been produced in Kiswahili for dissemination to all key stakeholders including those in Kondoa District. Research Coordinator Dr. C. Mung'ong'o

1.4 Resource Poor Environment and Poverty Alleviation in Mbinga District

This research project was financed by REPOA. The main objective of this project was to assess performance and effectiveness of Ngoro and Malonga farming systems in Matengo highlands in the conservation soil fertility and enhancement of crop productivity. The results show that ngoro farming practice has more positive impacts on poverty alleviation, environmental management and sustainable agriculture compared to malonga system. Ngoro system is more effective on prevention of soil erosion. On the other hand, cultivation along the hills using malonga practice leads to soil erosion reduces soil fertility and productivity. Non-farm income generating activities are associated with malongo farming systems and thus appear to be adopted as a strategy of reducing poverty. This farming system is associated with marginal environments where agriculture is not favourable. Researchers: Prof. P. Yanda Dr. A. Majule, and Dr. A. Mwakaje

1.5 Natural Resources Use Patterns and Poverty Alleviation Strategies in the Highlands
This research project was financed by REPOA. The objectives of this project were two-fold: to document the existing resources use patterns and establish the interactions between human activities and resource use patterns in the highland and lowland areas and; to examine and assess the relationships between population growth and poverty levels. Findings from this study illustrate that there is significant population growth especially in the highland areas that has led to out-migration and increase of poverty level. Researchers: Prof. P.Z. Yanda and Prof. N.F. Madulu

1.6 Participatory Approach for District Development Planning
Within the Tanzakesho (Capacity 21) Programme in Tanzania This is work that has been conducted between 2000 - 2004 in Mbozi and Sengerema Districts. The work has been done on advisory capacity within the global programme of Capacity 21. The programme under PO-RALG and UNDP has ended this year. The objective of the programme was to build capacity of the district staff, ward staff and communities to plan. This was done in eight wards and about forty villages. The PRA was used as a tool for communities to come up with their own village plans based on priorities of the felt needs. The communities had also to come up with implementation modalities. Contrary to the popular views, district staff are able to facilitate planning once they are empowered. Such an approach enhances commitment, ownership and sustainability. Researcher: Prof. I. Kikula

2.0 Ongoing Research and Consultancy
2.1 Pangani River Basin Research Programme

This is a multidisciplinary research contributing towards integrated water resources management in the Pangani River Basin. The project is undertaken by research staff from the University of Dar es Salaam (IRA, Geography Dept. Dept of Water Resources Engineering). A workshop was organised and 16 papers were presented and are available as published proceedings. Arrangements are in the pipeline to publish some of these in refereed journals. The project is winding up in December 2004. IRA Researchers involved; Prof. Ngana, J. O; Prof. Shishira, E.K and Prof. Yanda, P.

2.10 An Analysis of Land Use Dynamics and Land Degradation Processes in the Great Rift Valley, Centr
The project is funded by OSSREA. This study investigates land-use dynamics and land degradation processes in the Great Rift Valley areas of Iramba District, Tanzania. Four villages were included in the study, including two in the rift valley and two in the plateau. The study employed participatory assessments and quantitative (household interviews and soil analysis) to obtain qualitative and quantitative information pertaining to biophysical, agronomic and socio-economic facts that influence community access to, and utilisation of the various resources, and on the dynamics of land-use and land degradation. Researchers: Dr. R.Y.M. Kangalawe, Dr. A.E. Majule and Prof. E.K. Shishira

2.2 Systems Research on Small Groundwater Retaining Structures under Local Management in Arid Areas

This research project is funded by the European Union (EU). The main focus of the research is to explore ways and options of community participation in land and water management, taking small water retaining structures (dams) as a case in point. The main emphasis is placed on the role of community participation in East Africa in planning, construction and management and evaluation of the performance of the dams for wildlife and livestock. The project is undertaken jointly with the Faculty of Engineering and Delft University of the Netherlands, Catholic University of Leuven, and University of Nairobi. The project involves local communities (livestock keepers and wildlife managers) in Kitendeni, Arusha (Tanzania), and Amboseli National Park (Kenya). Researchers: Dr. Sosovele, Prof. Shishira, Dr. Kangalawe and Prof. D.Mashauri of Engineering Dept.

2.3 Capacity Building to Evaluate and Adapt to Climate Change-Induced Vulnerability to Malaria and C

Capacity Building to Evaluate and Adapt to Climate Change-Induced Vulnerability to Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region To analyse climate variability in temperature and rainfall extremes in relation to reported and documented malaria and cholera outbreaks in order to establish the coupling sensitivities and critical climate thresholds; To determine patterns of water supply, use and management in relation to malaria and cholera outbreaks of targeted groups To determine socio-economic profiles and activities of the target groups as factors that influence their vulnerability and adaptation strategies To carry out climate sensitivity tests for prediction of possible and future vulnerabilities and coping ranges To build capacity of institutions and scientists in the region to conduct climate variability and changes, vulnerability and adaptation research In Tanzania the study is being undertaken in Muleba District for analysis of climate induced malaria, and in Biharamulo District for cholera. Among the lessons learned is that it has been noted that villagers in the study area are quite familiar with malaria and have developed a number of locally adapted control measures such as use of traditional herbs. Such adaptation does not exist for cholera because the disease is considered new and appropriate medication is yet to be found. Findings from this study will provide an understanding on the vulnerability, magnitude of impacts, locally derived adaptation strategies, and identify areas for external intervention measures. Researchers: Prof. P. Yanda, Dr. R. Kangalawe

2.4 Indigenous Soil Fertility Restoration in Cashew Nut Producing Area of Southern Tanzania
The research study examines various farming practices and their implications to livelihoods of people in terms of production, the current status of soil fertility, adoption rate of organic fungicides in cashew growing areas and investigated how farmers are responding to declining soil fertility through organic residue management. The study further explores development problems facing the people through PRA, households survey and field visits. Through laboratory incubation, the potential of various organic residues in ameliorating soil acidity associated with sulphur dusting and effects on growth of maize are investigated. Findings from this study show that sulphur is still a major fungicide used in both zones and this poses a threat to the soil fertility. The adoption of alternative organic fungicides is still slow due to various reasons including poor institutional frameworks and dissemination. Researchers: Majule, A.E.; Shishira, E.K. and Yanda, P.Z.

2.5 Climate Human Environment Interactions in Africa

The IRA and the Change de Recherches (CNRS) though Centre European de Recherches at d'Enseignement des Geosciences de I'Environment (CEREGE) of France have developed a joint research project called "Climate - Environment and Human Dynamics in Africa (CLEHA). The project operates in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and seeks to address the following questions: What are the contributions of climate change and human impacts on tropical environments as reconstructed for Holocene (vegetation, water resources, soils, etc.) and; What are the consequences of environmental change on the livelihood of human societies? In order to address these key issues, routine data collection will be undertaken for reconstructing the past history of climate change so that we can predict the future. In light of this requirement, a monitoring station has been established at Masoko, Rungwe District. Currently, there is an ongoing data collection on temperature, rainfall, soil erosion and other socio-economic data on the surrounding environment. IRA Researchers: Dr. A. Majule, Prof. R. Mwalyosi

2.6 The dynamics of farming systems, food security and poverty alleviation strategies in the semiari
The research is funded by REPOA. The main objective of this study is to investigate the dynamics of the farming systems in Sukumaland. Specifically the study aims at examining the food security situation and poverty alleviation strategies by local communities under changing environments, with specific reference to the impact of small-scale mining activities on land degradation and the environment in general. At the villages detailed data collection was undertaken through discussions with key informants, participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) and field observations. Researchers: Dr. Kangalawe, Dr Liwenga, Dr Majule and Prof. N. Madulu

2.7 The Role of Non-Wood Food Forest Products on Poverty Alleviation in the Southern Coastal Areas
The focus of the study is on the role of edible non-wood forest products and how they contribute to poverty alleviation. The study is undertaken in Mtwara Rural and Tandahimba, Mtwara Region. In each district participatory studies and field observations were undertaken. Preliminary findings indicate that a fairly large proportion of the population is dependent for their livelihoods on non-wood food forest products. Thus, the use of ming'oko has increased and overexploitation has changed the availability and size of the product. Poverty alleviation in theses areas is constrained variably by several factors including lack of or poor water services, schools and other related infrastructure. Further, ecological characterization of different non-wood forest products needs to be undertaken in order to understand the impact of exploitation on the environment. Researchers: Dr. A. Majule, Dr. E. Liwenga and Mr. H. Ndangalasi

2.8 The Changing Livelihoods in the Maasai Plains - Implications on Poverty Levels and Sustainabilit

This study is funded by REPOA. Objectives of the study are the following; Identify responsive mechanisms as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve the standard of living in the study area, Examine whether such livelihood strategies have helped alleviate poverty in the study area, Examine the evolution of the poverty alleviation strategies in relation to dwindling natural capital in the study area Propose tenable poverty alleviation strategies as the basis for achieving improved standard of living and sustainable use of the natural capital. Researchers: Prof. P. Yanda and C.M.P. William

2.9 Wetland Utilisation, Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Conservation in Semi Arid Areas of Tz
The study is funded by REPOA. Major objectives are; To assess the current wetland utilization pattern and how that promotes food security and reduces poverty levels To ascertain utilization practices that may lead to the degradation of wetlands and how these effects could be minimized To establish ways in which benefits accrued from the wetlands could be optimized without compromising the ecological and hydrological integrity of the wetlands To study existing land tenure system and its implication on land use pattern and environmental management Researchers: Prof. P. Z. Yanda, A. Majule and A.G. Mwakaje